Re: LB, urban planners have long known that in order to reduce car use, it is not enough to make public transit or walking/cycling better, cheaper, and safer—you have to actually make car driving harder and more expensive:

Policy solutions include congestion pricing, gas taxes, and restrictions on road use. Here's a review of 77 studies on what strategies worked, and how well:

More on induced demadn/reducing car use:


IMHO there is good reason to focus on urban rather than rural driving—the world's population is increasingly urbanized ( and most driving is done in cities.

In the US, for example, over the past few decades driving has decreased in rural areas & increased in cities: (see e. g. p. 10),

However, the catch is that this might be a side-effect of more areas being classified as urban vs. rural:


P. S. Here's a recent report on active transportation infrastructure (walking/cycling/etc.) in Scarborough. If you're unfamiliar, it's Toronto's most ethnically diverse borough and has the highest % of residents in poverty. A full quarter of residents don't drive. However, this typical car-centred postwar suburb has been desperately underserved on the active transport & public transit front. It has a higher % of pedestrian fatalities than other areas of the city.

Anyway, this report summarizes the whole situation and proposes a strategy for making Scarborough livable without a car. (PDF)

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