Re: LB, urban planners have long known that in order to reduce car use, it is not enough to make public transit or walking/cycling better, cheaper, and safer—you have to actually make car driving harder and more expensive: https://theconversation.com/would-you-ditch-your-car-if-public-transport-was-free-heres-what-researchers-have-found-133001
Policy solutions include congestion pricing, gas taxes, and restrictions on road use. Here's a review of 77 studies on what strategies worked, and how well: https://sci-hub.se/10.1016/j.tra.2011.02.001
More on induced demadn/reducing car use:
P. S. Here's a recent report on active transportation infrastructure (walking/cycling/etc.) in Scarborough. If you're unfamiliar, it's Toronto's most ethnically diverse borough and has the highest % of residents in poverty. A full quarter of residents don't drive. However, this typical car-centred postwar suburb has been desperately underserved on the active transport & public transit front. It has a higher % of pedestrian fatalities than other areas of the city.
Anyway, this report summarizes the whole situation and proposes a strategy for making Scarborough livable without a car.
🍹🌴 a smol island in the sun 🌴🍹